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The possibility of preservation also depends on the material.Wooden objects and wooden structures in most circumstances do not survive very long (although wood does survive better in wet conditions than dry, and the wooden hulls of ships are sometimes preserved for thousands of years under the sea floor).Archaeology is the study of historic or prehistoric people and their culture through the study of their artifacts, monuments and other items they left behind.The word archaeology is derived from the Greek words “archeo,” meaning “chief” and “ology” meaning “study of”.Archaeologists seek out trash dumps, which often contain vital clues to unmasking everyday life.
Dry climates and sandy soils preserve delicate materials better than wet climates and muddy soils; this is why the vast majority of preserved papyrus fragments from classical antiquity come from the dry sands of Egypt.
Soil, sand and excavated material are sifted through screen to retrieve small artifacts.
Archaeologists often dig a series of trial trenches to figure out the best places to excavate.
It tells us certain things definitively: where people lived; what kinds of houses they lived in; how many of their houses were clustered together (in other words, the size of their villages) and how close or far apart from one another they lived; what they ate (based upon the analysis of animal and fish bones in their garbage heaps); how they disposed of dead people; and what kinds of implements they used, especially pottery, stone objects, and weapons.
There are some other kinds of questions about which archaeology gives us clues but no definitive answers.
Metal objects have a better chance of surviving; a relatively small number of bronze and iron objects have survived from antiquity, often in a state of advanced corrosion.