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In fact, residual stresses can arise even in the absence of any phase transformation.
All that is required is that the temperature varies with position .
The latter case represents displacive transformations, in which the pattern of atomic arrangement is altered by deformation.
The transformation can have a pronounced interaction with an externally applied stress only if it is accompanied by a shape change (a strain). Alberry) Ferritic Steels for Fast Reactor Steam Generators, British Nuclear Engineering Society, London 1977 1-4.
The distinguishing features of a variety of deformation modes are compared in Table 1, and the detailed characteristics of the shape change due to transformation are emphasised in Table 2.
The latter also includes some data for mechanical and annealing twins in ferrite and austenite respectively.
These are not, of course, transformation products, so that they do not cause any volume change; however, their growth mechanisms are analogous to those of displacive and reconstructive transformations respectively.
The shear component of the IPS for the mechanical twin is seen to be substantially larger than all of the transformations listed.