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Sometimes mounds are referred to as temple-mounds, in recognition that some had buildings atop them that were used for civic-ceremonial activities, instead of merely being the residence of a leader or chief.a prehistoric period generally characterized by the development of agriculture, use of ceramics, and the manufacture of technically advanced stone tools; the term is applied worldwide, not just in the Americas a geochemical dating technique that determines the age of an obsidian artifact by measuring how deep water molecules have been absorbed into the fresh surface of the flake or tool The hydration process is affected by temperature, specific characteristics of that particular obsidian, etc., making obsidian hydration dating sometimes difficult to interpret.after an artifact or place is abandoned, it can be affected by many types of disturbance processes, e.g., percolating rainwater, erosion, digging creatures, later human occupation including being trampled underfoot, etc.a small but distinct linear pattern in the soil that forms when rainwater is focused to drip in certain places; they are an example of a disturbance process A tree with a dense crown of leaves can have a drip line around its outer extent.The edge of the roof of a rock shelter can produce a drip line.Likewise, the edge of a roof can produce a drip line, if there’s nothing to divert the rainwater (e.g., a gutter).in general, this term applies to the recording and investigation of archaeological sites uncovered or to be impacted by planned public construction and engineering projects, although it extends to archival research and other undertakings; see also public archaeology a dating technique based on the number and variation in tree rings; usually, there is one ring for each year of growth and specific climatic changes are evident in thickness of ring Dendrochronologists compare the growth rings from many trees or pieces of wood found on archaeological sites to make a combined plot of ring thickness that stretches back many centuries.
a hole that is dug to receive an upright timber for a building, wall, or other structure As the structure decays, traces of the posts are left in the soil, usually seen as a stain (the post) within a stain (the hole), if well preserved (see feature).
a technique used to date material remains based on the rate at which radioactive potassium reverts to argon when it decays; potassium-argon dating is useful on remains that are too old to be dated by radiocarbon methods (e.g., more than about 50,000 years old) refers to aboriginal occupations of the New World that date to the time before Paleoindian or Clovis times Although somewhat controversial, evidence is mounting that humans occupied the Americas before Paleoindian times.
refers to stone points that were attached to spears or arrows, or stone tools used as a knife.
computer systems for recording, storing, and manipulating information that is linked to geographic location (spatial data); a GIS database is often represented by layers, each a different type of information (e.g., soil type, land-use, topography) a satellite technology used to pinpoint ground locations that archaeologists use when doing fieldwork, including to make accurate, detailed maps, or for locating previously-recorded archaeological sites two sets of imaginary uniformly spaced lines that cross at right angles and are used to divide an archaeological site into units and allow accurate measure of an object or feature’s location on the site; used to measure and record provenience (latitude and longitude comprise a grid) Sometimes instead written gatherer-hunters, to emphasize that gathering usually provides a most of the calories, hunter-gathers are peoples who subsist on foods obtained from the wilds, from foraging and hunting species that are not domesticated; hunting-and-gathering peoples tend to live in social groups that are relatively non-hierarchical and politically egalitarian.
a prehistoric period in the Southeastern North America, from about AD 900-1540, characterized by peoples who practiced maize agriculture, lived in chiefdoms, had populous villages and zones of dispersed housing, and constructed earthen mounds in some of their villages the excavation of a site to obtain archaeological information before it is destroyed by a construction project or other development Mitigation removes the significant information a site that is eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places has, so that the site may be destroyed or disturbed without the significant information it contains being lost.
Spanish word referring to a system for drafting human labor used by the Spanish to force Native Americans to work for them for part of each year; the system had vast and negative consequences for Native Americans in Georgia and across the New World a critical step in archaeological research, sometimes overlooked; after field work and laboratory analysis, document searches, and a period of thoughtfulness, a good, ethical archaeologist prepares a report on the investigations.